Triads in major/minor keysTriads in major keys:
Triads in minor keys use the harmonic minor for the scale degrees, so the third and sixth scale degrees are flattened compared to the parallel major key. The seventh scale degree is placed on the leading tone rather than the flatted seventh scale degree of the parallel major key. The chord quality is independend of its starting scale degree, so "v" (lower case) indicates the minor dominant, and V (upper case) indicates the major dominant in both major and minor keys.
Chord QualitiesTriads can be major (uppercase Roman numerals), minor (lowercase Roman numerals), augmented (adding a plus after uppercase Roman numerals), or diminished (adding a "o" after lowercase Roman numerals):
Chord tones higher than a fifth include the interval number.
Chord inversions are given as the letters a, b, c, d, etc., which indicate the root, first, second, third, etc. inversion of the chord, respectively. When an inversion is not specified on a chord label, the root position is assumed. The root chord is given as the first pitch in the output **kern spine, and the bass note is specified with an upper case diatonic pitch name (octave 3). Pitches in the chord are ordered from root upwards (by thirds).
Secondary ChordsChords in a key other than the prevailing key are written in the temporary key followed by a slash and the scale degree in the prevailing key. The secondary keys can be nested. For example, "V/V/V" is the dominante chord in the key with a tonic on the dominant's dominant; in C major, the dominant of the dominant is on D, and V in D major/minor is the pitches a c# e. Here are some further examples of secondary chords which are functional in a key different from the prevailing key:
The Neapolitan chord is labeled as N in **harm data, and is a major chord occuring on the flatted second degree of the key. The Neapolitan is typically found in first inversion, and progresses to the dominant (listen).
program file.krnIt can also read the data over the web:
program http://www.some-computer.com/some-directory/file.krnPiped data works in a somewhat similar manner:
cat file.krn | programis equivalent to a web file using ths form:
echo http://www.some-computer.com/some-directory/file.krn | program
Besides the http:// protocol, there is another special resource indicator prefix called humdrum:// which downloads data from the kernscores website. For example, using the URI humdrum://brandenburg/bwv1046a.krn:
program humdrum://brandenburg/bwv1046a.krnwill download the URL:
Musedata Bach Brandenburg Concerto collection.
This online-access of Humdrum data can also interface with the classical Humdrum Toolkit commands by using humcat to download the data from the kernscores website. For example, try the command pipeline:
humcat humdrum://brandenburg/bwv1046a.krn | census -k